Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
Online Inquiry

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) arises from the abnormal proliferation of primitive hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow, resulting in an abundance of abnormal white blood cells in the bloodstream and compromised hematopoietic function. If untreated, AML typically advances swiftly, often proving fatal within weeks or months. Alfa Cytology continues to lead in cancer vaccine services, ensuring dependable AML support.

Introduction to Acute Myeloid Leukemia

In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the malignant cells arise from myeloid progenitor cells. These cells are immature precursors of myeloid leukocytes during normal hematopoiesis. Typically, they mature into various types of leukocytes like eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, or monocytes. However, in AML, these cells fail to mature properly due to accumulated genetic mutations, resulting in abnormal proliferation and resistance to apoptosis.

AML is a highly aggressive malignancy, particularly prevalent among adults, with a dismal prognosis marked by a mere 24% 5-year survival rate. Its incidence escalates notably in individuals aged 65 years and older. Despite its severity, AML is relatively uncommon, constituting only approximately 1% of all cancers. The in vivo clonal evolution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a dynamic process characterized by continual acquisition and loss of specific mutations. These changes persistently occur across various time stages of the disease progression. The following diagram represents the formation of AML as a multi-causal, multi-step, and multi-pathway process.

Fig.2 Acute myeloid leukemia pathogenesis.Fig.1 Acute myeloid leukemia pathogenesis. (Gruszka, A. M. et al., 2017)

Therapy And Vaccine Development for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Over the past few decades, immunotherapy has been considered the mainstay of therapy for AML and other hematologic malignancies. In immunotherapy, T cells are considered crucial. For example, leukemia cells remaining after transplantation can be cleared by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). Moreover, AML faces a high risk of relapse even after chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation. Consequently, an AML cancer vaccine could enhance the immune system's long-term surveillance and help eliminate residual leukemia cells, thereby reducing the relapse rate. Conceptually, AML immunotherapy can be divided into the following categories.

By Target Antigen
  • Although there may be a lack of AML-specific antigens, the current research focus is on AML-associated" antigens. This antigen is enriched in AML cells but is not completely specific. For example, CD33, CD123 and WT1, etc.
By Cytotoxicity Mode
  • Utilizing drugs capable of targeted delivery of cytotoxic payloads, such as antibody-drug couplings.
  • Drugs that utilize the activity of immune cells, e.g., effector cell-conjugated antibodies or over-the-counter cellular therapies.

Our Service

In recent years, the incidence of AML has been on the rise annually due to aging populations and escalating environmental pollution. Hence, developing an effective AML vaccine is paramount in tackling this health concern. Alfa Cytology, a seasoned provider of cancer vaccine services, is dedicated to furnishing AML vaccine development services. Our comprehensive suite of offerings includes.

Tumor Immunology

Understand AML immune evasion mechanisms, and target them in vaccine design to awaken immune response and counter tumor evasion.

Design Antigen

Target multiple AML antigens with a multi-antigen vaccine, enhancing the breadth and potency of the immune response.

Selective Adjuvant

Choosing suitable adjuvants can heighten immune recognition of AML-associated antigens within the vaccine, bolster antigen-presenting cell activity, ensure vaccine stability and safety, and ultimately enhance therapeutic effectiveness.

Establishing Preclinical Models

Develop accurate AML animal or in vitro models to assess vaccine safety and efficacy, vital for vaccine development.

Type of Vaccines

Dendritic cell cancer vaccines for AML are currently undergoing clinical trials, showcasing promising advancements in cancer vaccine research. Alfa Cytology also provides a diverse array of cancer vaccine options to support further exploration and development in this field.

Alfa Cytology recognizes the critical need for an AML vaccine and is dedicated to providing comprehensive support for AML vaccine research and development. We are committed to introducing innovative solutions and fostering optimism for AML therapy. We eagerly anticipate collaborating with you. Please don't hesitate to contact us!


  1. Gruszka, A. M., et al.; (2017). Understanding the molecular basis of acute myeloid leukemias: where are we now?. International journal of hematologic oncology, 6(2), 43–53.
 For Research Only.