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Glioblastoma (GBM) is a primary malignant brain tumor which is the most common and invasive cancer in adults. The global incidence rate of GBM is about 3 cases per 100000 people. Alfa Cytology is a world leader in the development of cancer vaccines. With our extensive experience and advanced platform, we can provide the best vaccine development services for glioblastoma.

Introduction to Glioblastoma

GBM originates from glial cells, which are the brain-supporting cells. Its characteristics are infiltration, rapid growth, and drug resistance.

Mechanism of Glioblastoma

The exact cause of GBM is not fully understood, but several factors may lead to its occurrence and development. Genetic mutations also play an important role in the occurrence and progression of GBM, such as promoting cell proliferation, disrupting cell cycle regulation, and enhancing resistance to cell death signals. Especially TP53, EGFR, and PTEN have been proven to be highly correlated with the formation of GBM.

In addition, GBM cells release signals that stimulate angiogenesis, which can lead to abnormal formation of blood vessels in the tumor microenvironment and provide sufficient oxygen and nutrition for tumor growth.

GBM cells release signals that stimulate angiogenesis.Fig. 1 Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) produce perivascular cells to maintain tumor blood vessels. (Cheng, L., et al., 2013)

Therapies for Glioblastoma

GBM is an invasive brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Vaccine development and targeted therapy are expected to improve therapy outcomes. Therefore, developing relevant therapy methods is a research field worth exploring. Many trials are ongoing, mainly involving the study of relevant targets and novel therapies. Developing more effective therapies to address the significant challenges posed by GBM is crucial.

Developing more effective therapies to address the significant challenges posed by GBM is crucial.Fig. 2 Graphic summary of current therapeutic options in glioma. (Ying, S., et al., 2022)

Specific Targets of Glioblastoma

Currently, to facilitate the development of new targeted therapies or immunotherapies, researchers are exploring specific targets of GBM. Some noteworthy targets include the following.

Targets Description
EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib and gefitinib have been studied in trials. However, the response to these targeted therapies is limited due to acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms.
PI3K (phosphoinositol 3 kinase) pathway Abnormal activation of the PI3K pathway is common in GBM. Some PI3K inhibitors are being evaluated in trials to disrupt this signaling pathway, such as buparisib and pictilisib.
IDH1 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1) IDH1 mutations are present in some GBM. IDH1 inhibitors have shown promising prospects in trials for treating IDH1 mutated GBM, such as ivosidenib.

Glioblastoma Vaccine Research and Development

Recently, the development of therapeutic GBM vaccines has been an active research field due to their safety and efficacy. The GBM vaccine effectively activates the immune system, enabling it to more effectively recognize and attack tumor cells, ultimately achieving the goal of eliminating tumors. The following are several vaccine types being explored.

Our Service

Against GBM, Alfa Cytology provides various services related to vaccine development, including antigen recognition services, adjuvant and delivery system development services, and vaccine preclinical testing services. In addition, to better understand GBM and develop vaccine therapies, Alfa Cytology offers animal models service that simulates the disease.

The ongoing trials and progress in understanding disease mechanisms continue to drive the development of GBM vaccine therapies. Alfa Cytology is committed to the research and development of therapeutic glioblastoma vaccines, from the discovery of cancer antigens, and the development of different types of vaccines, to vaccine research for different cancer types, providing one-stop services. If you are interested in our service, please contact us for more information.


  1. Cheng, L., et al.; (2013). Glioblastoma Stem Cells Generate Vascular Pericytes to Support Vessel Function and Tumor Growth. Cell, 153(1), 139–152. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.02.021
  2. Ying, S., et al.; (2022). Bottlenecks and opportunities in immunotherapy for glioma: a narrative review. J Bio-X Res. doi: 10.1097/JBR.0000000000000135
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