Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)
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Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)

Fig.1 Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML).

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a type of blood cancer originating from the abnormal proliferation of white blood cells within the bone marrow. It is characterized by its high aggressiveness and is considered a malignancy with rapid progression. Alfa Cytology leads the field in providing cancer vaccine services, ensuring continuous support for Chronic myeloid leukemia.

Introduction to Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Chronic granulocytic leukemia (CML) is a hematologic malignancy that infrequently occurs, displaying no notable racial or geographic variances. Yet, data suggest that asymptomatic disease onset tends to occur slightly earlier in Asia and other developing regions compared to Western countries. Furthermore, besides the higher incidence rate of CML in men compared to women by approximately 1.4 times, exposure to ionizing radiation emerges as a significant risk factor. For instance, survivors of nuclear explosions exhibit CML incidence rates up to 50 times greater than those in unaffected individuals.

The Development of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a two-phase disease. It begins when the BCR-ABL fusion gene is activated in self-renewing stem cells in the bone marrow. These stem cells can turn into different types of blood cells, including myeloid and lymphoid cells.

The Chronic Phase (CML-CP)

  • This phase, known as the chronic phase, marks the outset of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), extending over several years or even longer.
  • During this stage, individuals may experience subtle symptoms or none at all. Fatigue, night sweats, and unexplained weight loss might be the only indicators, often overlooked or attributed to other causes.
  • The counts of leukocytes in the peripheral blood often show a slight increase, accompanied by relatively lower levels of abnormal cells present both in the bone marrow and peripheral blood.

The Blast Phase (CML-BP)

  • It is one of the final stages of disease progression. In about 10-20% of CML patients, the chronic phase will progress to the fulminant phase.
  • As the disease rapidly advances, individuals experience pronounced symptoms such as persistent fever, increased susceptibility to bleeding, development of anemia, and intensified bone pain.
  • A surge in leukemia happens when there is an increase in immature white blood cells in the bloodstream, known as "blast cells" or "blast clones," which are typically associated with acute leukemia.

Fig.2 The development of chronic myelogenous leukemia.Fig.1 The development of chronic myelogenous leukemia. (Ren R., 2005)

Therapy And Vaccine Development for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

The primary therapies for CML encompass medication, stem cell transplantation, and surgery, each carrying certain limitations as outlined in the accompanying table. Hence, there is an imperative for pioneering solutions like cancer vaccines to combat this ailment.

Therapy Types Disadvantages
  • Prolonged usage can result in the emergence of drug resistance, diminishing the efficacy or rendering the therapy ineffective.
  • Various adverse reactions like nausea, vomiting, and fatigue can manifest.
  • Cancer reappearance might happen upon cessation of the medication.
Stem Cell Transplants
  • Surgical procedures entail higher risks, potentially leading to increased post-operative complications.
  • It is not indicated for some patients who are older or have serious complications.
  • Long-term monitoring and therapy are necessary for complications like rejection reactions or graft-versus-host disease.
  • Risks are high, with possible surgical complications and a long postoperative recovery period.
  • Surgical therapy has limited curative effect on CML and does not address the underlying problem.

Our Service

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) presents a complex pathogenic process, making therapy challenging. Long-term medication is often necessary, compounded by issues of drug resistance and adverse effects. Alfa Cytology's Cancer Vaccine Service strives to enhance medical care by offering safer, more efficacious CML vaccines, alleviating therapy burdens, and fostering substantial progress in leukemia therapy.

Advancements in vaccine-targeted therapies and immunotherapies offer the potential for enhancing CML prognosis and tailoring therapy. Alfa Cytology is dedicated to surmounting CML vaccine development challenges with expertise spanning the prediction of cancer antigens, identification of cancer antigens, and preclinical vaccine studies. Contact us for details on our services. Contact us for further information on our offerings.


  1. Ren R. (2005). Mechanisms of BCR-ABL in the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukaemia. Nature reviews. Cancer, 5(3), 172–183.
 For Research Only.