Breast Cancer
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Breast Cancer

Breast cancer has become the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Cancer vaccine is an attractive therapy because it induces a durable immune response to eradicate tumor cells. Alfa Cytology provides high-quality breast cancer vaccine development services.

Introduction to Breast Cancer

Although chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy have made some progress over the past few decades, recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer remain a significant challenge. Innovative therapy strategies are still urgently needed.

Utilization of Vaccine in Breast Cancer

Cancer vaccines represent active immunotherapy designed to stimulate a patient's immune system to recognize and kill tumor cells. Ideally, it would be possible to successfully stimulate the response of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells against tumor antigens associated with breast cancer (BC). Cancer vaccines have many advantages. Here are some examples.

  • Low Toxicity
  • Prevention
  • Highly Specific Adaptive Immune Response
  • Blocking and Therapy

Various Types of Adjuvants

Adjuvants are components used in some vaccines that help to generate a stronger immune response in the body receiving the vaccine. Here are some commonly used adjuvants.

Types Examples Functions
Cytokines GM-CSF, IL-12
  • Promoting the maturation and activation of DCs
  • Enhancing antigen uptake and presentation
Microbes and microbial derivatives BCG, CpG, MPL
  • Activating DCs through toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands
Mineral salts Alum
  • Enhancing antibody production by B cells
Oil emulsions or surfactants AS02, Montanite, QS21
  • Decelerating release of antigens
  • Stimulating local DCs at the injection site
Particulates AS04, polylactide co-glycolide
  • Functioning as an antigen carrier
  • Enhancing antigen uptake and presentation
Viral vectors Adenovirus, fowl pox
  • Delivering antigens
  • Activating DCs through TLR ligands

Various Types of Administration Routes

Vaccine development strategies involve the optimization of vaccine protocols and routes of administration. The main routes of administration of breast cancer vaccines include intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, and nodular injections.

The preferred route depends on the type of antigen being delivered and helps to efficiently deliver the antigen to antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The antigen-laden APC is then transferred through afferent lymph nodes to the lymph nodes to initiate T cells. The activated T cells are then transported to the tumor tissue via the bloodstream, where they destroy the tumor cells. An important factor to consider is how the route of vaccine administration affects the circulation and homing process of T cells to cancer-infiltrating tissues.

An important factor to consider is how the route of vaccine administration affects the circulation and homing process of T cells to cancer-infiltrating tissues.Fig. 1 Different administration routes of breast cancer vaccines.

Our Service

Breast cancer vaccines can be divided into different types based on platform and formulation. Depending on research needs, Alfa Cytology provides diversified breast cancer vaccine development services, including but not limited to the following.

Breast cancer vaccines can generate and amplify precise immune responses, and build immune memory, potentially controlling and eliminating residual disease by responding quickly to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and tumor-specific antigens (TSA) exposure over time. Alfa Cytology is committed to the research and development of cancer vaccines, from the discovery of cancer antigens, and the development of different types of vaccines, to vaccine research for different cancer types, providing one-stop services. If you are interested in our service, please get in touch with us.

 For Research Only.