Solutions for Transduction and Regulation of Tumor Cell Apoptosis Signals

Relying on the technology platform of the tumor microenvironment center, Alfa Cytology provides comprehensive solutions for study the molecular mechanism of signal transduction and regulation of tumor cell apoptosis, helping researchers to successfully achieve their research goals.


Signal Transduction and Regulation of Cell Apoptosis in Tumor

The occurrence and development of tumor is a process of unrestrained excessive accumulation of cells, the causes of which include abnormal cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. Existing studies have shown that tumor cell apoptosis is regulated by a series of apoptosis-related genes and realized by apoptosis-related signaling, and its mechanism is complex and involves numerous molecules, among which the most critical molecules are Caspase family and Bcl-2 family. And apoptosis is divided into 3 main pathways depending on the initiation stage: mitochondrial pathway, endoplasmic reticulum pathway (PERK pathway and caspase7 pathway) and death receptor pathway.

The ability to escape from apoptosis is characteristic of the vast majority of tumor cells. Many proteins (including cell surface receptors, ligands, proteases and mitotic components) regulate the fine balance of cell survival and death. In cancer, mutations in these sensing or acting molecules disrupt this balance and thus escape the regulation of apoptosis. Therefore, elucidating the molecular mechanism of apoptosis in tumor cells and its apoptotic signaling pathways is of great theoretical significance and clinical value.


As the research on tumor microenvironment and signal transduction pathways has become more mature, several apoptotic signaling pathways have been assembled. These pathways are characterized by their own forms of action and intersect with each other, forming a complex network of information pathways. However, there are still a lot of uncharted areas waiting for further research, such as: to obtain the complete apoptotic signaling pathway and find the inner connection between each pathway, to completely elucidate the apoptotic mechanism of tumor cells; to find more and more effective entry points for tumor treatment from the apoptosis pathway; how to maximize the selective induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Alfa Cytology has established an innovative tumor microenvironment center technology platform and is developing several technologies to assist the needs of our customers related to the above research objectives. We believe that with the deeper research on the relationship between tumor and apoptosis and the mechanism of apoptosis, we will be able to elucidate those uncharted areas, so that we can effectively use apoptosis induction to control tumors.

Key technologies

The development of the behavioral process of apoptosis is accompanied by distinct changes in cell morphology. Some dyes such as typan blue and propidium iodide cannot enter living cells but can stain dead cells. fluorescent dyes such as DAPI, Hoechst 33342 and Hoechst 33258, which bind to DNA, can stain the nucleus. Therefore, morphological changes in the nucleus can be observed with the help of fluorescence microscopy. Giemsa staining method can stain chromatin and facilitate the observation of chromatin fixation, nucleus fragmentation, formation of apoptotic vesicles and other processes under ordinary light microscopy.

Compared with normal diploid cells, apoptotic cells undergo DNA breakage or loss and are subdiploid. Using PI staining to generate excited fluorescence of DNA, flow cytometry is able to detect apoptotic subdiploid cells.

Western blot detects key proteins (antibodies). When apoptosis occurs, the expression levels of proteins associated with apoptosis change. Star proteins of the apoptotic pathway, such as Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 in the mitochondrial pathway, the precursor molecules Pro-caspase-9 and Pro-caspase-3 and the substrate of Caspase-3, PARP molecule; Fas, FasL, TNF and TNFR; FasL-Fas pathway as well as FADD molecules in the TNF-TNFR pathway.

Apoptosis is also detected by other physiological and biochemical methods, such as caspase activation, Cyt c release, and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential.

Alfa Cytology is committed to supporting scientists in making breakthrough scientific discoveries and developing new applications to accelerate new drug discovery and scientific diagnosis and treatment. Our high-performance scientific instruments and high-value solutions enable scientists to explore the mysteries of life at the tumor microenvironment level. Please tell us your project requirements, and we will provide you with a full service from solution to report. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.


Alfa Cytology is a service provider specializing in tumor microenvironment research.

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