Analysis of Macrophage Polarization in TME

The development of distinct functional phenotypes in mature macrophages, a process known as macrophage polarization, is influenced by specific signals within the tumor microenvironment (TME). Alfa Cytology offers comprehensive services and techniques to unravel the complex progress in TME.

Macrophage Polarization in TME

The polarization of macrophages and their functional plasticity can be modulated by tumor-derived factors. Certain macrophages exhibit an M1-like phenotype, wherein they produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, participate in antigen presentation, and exhibit cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. Conversely, certain macrophages take on an M2-like phenotype, which is characterizedby their production of molecules that inhibit both inflammation and immune responses. Additionally, they are involved in the reshaping of the extracellular matrix and contribute to the enhancement of angiogenesis. Given the remarkable plasticity of macrophages, their polarization represents a dynamic process. As a result, it is possible to reverse the polarization state from M2 to M1, which, in turn, helps the body produce anti-tumor effects. Thus, it is crucial to study the factors within the TME that influence macrophage polarization.

The polarization of macrophagesFig. 1 The polarization of macrophages. (Rhee I, et al., 2016)

Analysis of Macrophage Polarization in TME

Alfa Cytology offers in-depth assays for assessing macrophage polarization and gaining valuable insights into their phenotypic and functional states. Our comprehensive approach leads to a detailed understanding of macrophage activity and behavior. Our services include, but are not limited to:

  • Macrophage Cell Culture Assays
    We can isolate macrophages from various sources. These cells can then be cultured in vitro and polarized using specific cytokines or stimuli to induce M1 or M2 phenotypes. In addition, we conduct co-culture experiments to investigate the intricate interactions between macrophages and various cell types present in the TME. This approach allows us to gain valuable insights into the factors that influence macrophage polarization and elucidate their effects on neighboring cells.
  • Comprehensive Gene Expression Profiling of Macrophages
    Alfa Cytology provides comprehensive gene expression profiling services to investigate the polarization states of macrophages within the TME. By leveraging high-throughput technologies, such as RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and microarray analysis, we can assess the expression levels of a wide range of genes associated with macrophage polarization. Through this analysis, researchers can identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that are characteristic of distinct macrophage phenotypes.
  • Functional Characterization of Macrophage Subsets
    Alfa Cytology utilizes flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques to characterize macrophage subsets based on surface markers and functional markers. By analyzing key markers associated with M1-like and M2-like macrophages, we can offer detailed insights into the polarization status of macrophages in the TME. This information helps identify potential targets for immunomodulatory therapies and facilitates the development of personalized treatment approaches.

The Advantages of Our Macrophage Polarization Analysis

  • Alfa Cytology leverages next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatics tools to provide in-depth and comprehensive observations on macrophage polarization within the tumor microenvironment. This approach aids in the development of a better understanding of the intricate interactions between macrophages and the TME.
  • Alfa Cytology utilizes multiplexed immunohistochemistry to enable the simultaneous visualization of multiple markers in tissue samples. This allows for a comprehensive and spatially resolved characterization of macrophage subsets within the TME. By using this approach, we can provide researchers with objective and valuable insights into the underlying cellular mechanisms in the TME.

At Alfa Cytology, we are dedicated to advancing the understanding of macrophage polarization in the TME to support researchers interested in exploring and harnessing its potential for targeted therapies. Contact us today to to discuss your unique research requirements and unlock the mysteries of this specific field.


  1. Rhee I. Diverse macrophages polarization in tumor microenvironment. Arch Pharm Res, 2016;39(11):1588-1596.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.


Alfa Cytology is a service provider specializing in tumor microenvironment research.

About Us

Online Inquiry

Copyright © Alfa Cytology. All rights reserved. Cookie Policy | Privacy Policy